1066: William the Conqueror wins the Battle of Hastings; he becomes king of England
1215: Landless John (Jean Sans Terre) signs the Magna Carta, which defines the rights and duties of the king and Parliament.
1337-1453: The Hundred Years War
1455-1485: The Wars of the Roses, between the houses of Lancaster and York
1509: Henry VIII becomes king; in 1534 he signs the Act of Supremacy, which makes the king the head of the Church of England, which is Protestant.