The Madonna of the Rabbit

A closer look at The Madonna of the Rabbit

A closer look at The Madonna of the Rabbit
Tiziano VECELLIO, known as Titian (Pieve di Cadore, 1488/1490 - Venice, 1576)
The Virgin and Child with Saint Catherine and a Shepherd, known as The Madonna of the Rabbit
c. 1525 - 1530
Oil on canvas
H. 71 cm; W. 87 cm
Inv. 743
Musée du Louvre
© 2007 Musée du Louvre / Angèle Dequier
 

Analysis

A country outing

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In a landscape of the Venetian countryside, with the Alps in the distance, several figures are gathered around a food basket as if they are enjoying a light meal.
The woman in the center wearing a red dress and blue cloak is easily identifiable as the Virgin Mary. She is stroking a rabbit while looking at her son, Jesus Christ who is being held up to her by a woman whose clothes and hair are in the style of the Renaissance. To the right, in the background, is a man tending sheep. In this work, Titian has painted a religious subject as if it were a scene from daily life, imbued with naturalness and intimacy.
Jean Habert

Veneto, Italy

Titian (Pieve di Cadore, 1488/1490 - Venice, 1576)<br/><i>Scuola della Carità: The Presentation of the Virgin in the Temple</i><br/>16th century<br/>Oil on canvas<br/>H. 335 cm; W. 775 cm<br/>CAL-F-005285-0000<br/>Venice, Galleria dell'Accademia
Titian (Pieve di Cadore, 1488/1490 - Venice, 1576)
Scuola della Carità: The Presentation of the Virgin in the Temple
16th century
Oil on canvas
H. 335 cm; W. 775 cm
CAL-F-005285-0000
Venice, Galleria dell'Accademia

© Archives Alinari, Florence, Dist RMN / Mauro Magliani
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A religious scene in a landscape

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In this painting, Titian’s artistry lies in the subtle evocation of a religious theme.
The Virgin in her red dress and blue cloak and the Infant Jesus are fairly easy to recognize, but it would perhaps be useful to identify the other figures and the objects. The elegant woman dressed like a 16th-century married Venetian woman is Catherine of Alexandria, a 4th-century martyred saint who in a vision was married to Christ. She is kneeling on a wheel, the instrument of her martyrdom.

In Christian liturgy, that which is sacred cannot be held with bare hands. The white cloth in which Catherine holds the child emphasizes the idea of holiness.

In the basket of food can be seen the apple, symbol of Eve’s sin, the bunch of grapes representing the wine of the Eucharist and the blood of Christ. The strawberry underneath Saint Catherine is traditionally represented as one of the fruits of paradise.

In antiquity it was thought that the rabbit could reproduce without sexual intercourse. So here the rabbit is an allusion to the Virgin’s virginity and the conception of Christ without sin, its whiteness an assertion of purity.

The shepherd playing the panpipes conjures up the world of antiquity. Placed in the middle ground, he evokes the concept dear to Renaissance artists of Christianity replacing the pagan golden age and redeeming humanity.
Giovanni Bellini (Venice, c. 1432 - Venice, 1516)<br/><i>Madonna of the Meadow</i><br/>c. 1500<br/>Oil and tempera on  synthetic panel transferred from wood<br/>H. 67.3 cm; W. 86.4 cm<br/>NG599<br/>London, National Gallery
Giovanni Bellini (Venice, c. 1432 - Venice, 1516)
Madonna of the Meadow
c. 1500
Oil and tempera on synthetic panel transferred from wood
H. 67.3 cm; W. 86.4 cm
NG599
London, National Gallery

© National Gallery Collection, London
Titian (Pieve di Cadore, 1488/1490 - Venice, 1576)<br/><i>Holy Family with a Shepherd</i><br/>c. 1510<br/>Oil on canvas<br/>H. 99.1 cm; W. 139.1 cm<br/>NG4<br/>London, National Gallery
Titian (Pieve di Cadore, 1488/1490 - Venice, 1576)
Holy Family with a Shepherd
c. 1510
Oil on canvas
H. 99.1 cm; W. 139.1 cm
NG4
London, National Gallery

© The Bridgeman Art Library
Giorgione (Castelfranco Veneto, 1477/1478 - Venice, 1510)<br/><i>Virgin and Child in a Landscape</i><br/>c. 1503<br/>Oil on canvas<br/>H. 44 cm; W. 36.5 cm<br/>GE 185<br/>Saint Petersburg, Hermitage Museum
Giorgione (Castelfranco Veneto, 1477/1478 - Venice, 1510)
Virgin and Child in a Landscape
c. 1503
Oil on canvas
H. 44 cm; W. 36.5 cm
GE 185
Saint Petersburg, Hermitage Museum

© The State Hermitage Museum, St. Petersburg
Titian (Pieve di Cadore, 1488/1490 - Venice, 1576)<br/><i>Assumption of the Virgin</i><br/>1516-1518<br/>Oil on canvas<br/>H. 69 cm; W. 36 cm<br/>CAL-F-003408-0000;CAL-F-003409-0000<br/>Venice, church of Santa Maria dei Frari
Titian (Pieve di Cadore, 1488/1490 - Venice, 1576)
Assumption of the Virgin
1516-1518
Oil on canvas
H. 69 cm; W. 36 cm
CAL-F-003408-0000;CAL-F-003409-0000
Venice, church of Santa Maria dei Frari

© 1990. Photo SCALA, Florence
Titian (Pieve di Cadore, 1488/1490 - Venice, 1576)<br/><i>The Gozzi altarpiece: Virgin and Child in Glory with Saints Francis and Aloysius, and the Donor Alvise Gozzi</i><br/>1520<br/>Oil on panel<br/>H. 320 cm; W. 206 cm<br/>Ancona, Museo Civico
Titian (Pieve di Cadore, 1488/1490 - Venice, 1576)
The Gozzi altarpiece: Virgin and Child in Glory with Saints Francis and Aloysius, and the Donor Alvise Gozzi
1520
Oil on panel
H. 320 cm; W. 206 cm
Ancona, Museo Civico

© 1992. Photo SCALA, Florence
Titian (Pieve di Cadore, 1488/1490 - Venice, 1576)<br/><i>Adam and Eve</i><br/>1550<br/>Oil on panel<br/>H. 240 cm; W. 186 cm<br/>Nr. 429<br/>Madrid, Museo del Prado
Titian (Pieve di Cadore, 1488/1490 - Venice, 1576)
Adam and Eve
1550
Oil on panel
H. 240 cm; W. 186 cm
Nr. 429
Madrid, Museo del Prado

© 1990. Photo SCALA, Florence
Giovanni Bellini (Venice, c. 1432 - Venice, 1516)<br/><i>Christ on the Cross (Calvary)</i><br/>c. 1465-1470<br/>Oil on panel<br/>H. 71 cm; W. 63 cm<br/>RF1970-39<br/>Paris, Musée du Louvre
Giovanni Bellini (Venice, c. 1432 - Venice, 1516)
Christ on the Cross (Calvary)
c. 1465-1470
Oil on panel
H. 71 cm; W. 63 cm
RF1970-39
Paris, Musée du Louvre

© Photo RMN - © Daniel Arnaudet
Anonymous<br/><i>Virgin and Child with Rabbits</i><br/>Early 16th century<br/>Grisaille, silver yellow, stained glass<br/>H. 27 cm; W. 183 cm<br/>Cl.14146<br/>Paris, Musée National du Moyen Âge - Thermes de Cluny
Anonymous
Virgin and Child with Rabbits
Early 16th century
Grisaille, silver yellow, stained glass
H. 27 cm; W. 183 cm
Cl.14146
Paris, Musée National du Moyen Âge - Thermes de Cluny

© Photo RMN - © Jean-Gilles Berizzi
Anonymous<br/><i>Pan</i><br/>2nd century AD?<br/>Marble<br/>H. 158 cm<br/>Ma 266<br/>Paris, Musée du Louvre
Anonymous
Pan
2nd century AD?
Marble
H. 158 cm
Ma 266
Paris, Musée du Louvre

© Photo RMN - © Hervé Lewandowski
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The theme of the sacra conversazione

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This scene is an example of the genre called the sacra conversazione, which appeared in Florence in the 15th century, notably in the work of Fra Angelico: the sacred figures—patron saints —are represented in intimate discussion with the Virgin, who fulfills her role as humankind’s intercessor before God. This theme was then taken up in the second half of the 15th century in Venice by Bellini, and subsequently by his pupils Giorgione and Titian. In The Madonna of the Rabbit, the very intimate and natural relationship between the Virgin and her “maid” humanizes the theme of the sacra conversazione.
Filippo Lippi (Prato, 1457 - Florence, 1504)<br/><i>Virgin and Child Surrounded by Angels with Saint Frediano and Saint Augustine, known as the Barbadori Altarpiece</i><br/>1437<br/>Tempera on panel<br/>H. 208 cm; W. 244 cm<br/>INV. 339<br/>Paris, Musée du Louvre
Filippo Lippi (Prato, 1457 - Florence, 1504)
Virgin and Child Surrounded by Angels with Saint Frediano and Saint Augustine, known as the Barbadori Altarpiece
1437
Tempera on panel
H. 208 cm; W. 244 cm
INV. 339
Paris, Musée du Louvre

© RMN / Jean-Gilles Berizzi
Giovanni Bellini (Venice, c. 1430/1435 - Venice, 1516)<br/><i>Sacra conversazione: Virgin and Child with Saint John the Baptist and a Female Saint</i><br/>c. 1500-1504<br/>Oil on panel<br/>H. 54 cm; W. 76 cm<br/>Venice, Galleria dell'Accademia
Giovanni Bellini (Venice, c. 1430/1435 - Venice, 1516)
Sacra conversazione: Virgin and Child with Saint John the Baptist and a Female Saint
c. 1500-1504
Oil on panel
H. 54 cm; W. 76 cm
Venice, Galleria dell'Accademia

© 1990. Photo SCALA, Florence - courtesy of the Ministerio Beni e Att. Culturali
Sebastiano del Piombo (Venice, c. 1485 - Rome, 1547)<br/><i>Holy Family with Saint Catherine, Saint Sebastian and a Donor</i><br/>c. 1507-1508<br/>Oil on poplar panel<br/>H. 95 cm; W. 136 cm<br/>INV. 70<br/>Paris, Musée du Louvre
Sebastiano del Piombo (Venice, c. 1485 - Rome, 1547)
Holy Family with Saint Catherine, Saint Sebastian and a Donor
c. 1507-1508
Oil on poplar panel
H. 95 cm; W. 136 cm
INV. 70
Paris, Musée du Louvre

© Photo RMN - © Droits réservés
Fra Angelico (Vicchio di Mugello, c. 1395/1400 - Rome, 1455)<br/><i>San Marco Altarpiece</i><br/>c. 1438-1440<br/>Tempera on panel<br/>H. 220 cm; W. 227 cm<br/>Florence, Museo di San Marco<br/>
Fra Angelico (Vicchio di Mugello, c. 1395/1400 - Rome, 1455)
San Marco Altarpiece
c. 1438-1440
Tempera on panel
H. 220 cm; W. 227 cm
Florence, Museo di San Marco


© Erich Lessing, Vienne
Giovanni Bellini (Venice, c. 1432 - Venice, 1516)<br/><i>San Zaccaria Altarpiece</i><br/>1505<br/>Oil on canvas transferred from panel<br/>H. 402 cm; W. 273 cm<br/>Venice, church of San Zaccaria
Giovanni Bellini (Venice, c. 1432 - Venice, 1516)
San Zaccaria Altarpiece
1505
Oil on canvas transferred from panel
H. 402 cm; W. 273 cm
Venice, church of San Zaccaria

© Erich Lessing, Vienne
Titian (Pieve di Cadore, 1488/1490 - Venice, 1576)<br/><i>The Aldobrandini Madonna: The Mystic Marriage of Saint Catherine with the Infant Saint John the Baptist</i><br/>c. 1532<br/>Oil on canvas<br/>H. 100.6 cm; W. 142.2 cm<br/>NG635<br/>London, National Gallery
Titian (Pieve di Cadore, 1488/1490 - Venice, 1576)
The Aldobrandini Madonna: The Mystic Marriage of Saint Catherine with the Infant Saint John the Baptist
c. 1532
Oil on canvas
H. 100.6 cm; W. 142.2 cm
NG635
London, National Gallery

© National Gallery Collection, London
Correggio (Correggio, 1489 (?) - Correggio, 1534)<br/><i>The Mystical Marriage of Saint Catherine</i><br/>c. 1526-1527<br/>Oil on panel<br/>H. 105 cm; W. 102 cm<br/>INV. 41<br/>Paris, Musée du Louvre
Correggio (Correggio, 1489 (?) - Correggio, 1534)
The Mystical Marriage of Saint Catherine
c. 1526-1527
Oil on panel
H. 105 cm; W. 102 cm
INV. 41
Paris, Musée du Louvre

© 2007 Musée du Louvre / Angèle Dequier
Giorgione (Castelfranco Veneto, 1477/1478 - Venice, 1510)<br/><i>Virgin and Child Enthroned with Saints Francis and Nicasius (or Liberale), known as the Castelfranco Altarpiece</i><br/>c. 1505<br/>Oil on panel<br/>H. 200 cm; W. 152 cm<br/>Castelfranco Veneto, Duomo di Santa Maria Assunta e San Liberale
Giorgione (Castelfranco Veneto, 1477/1478 - Venice, 1510)
Virgin and Child Enthroned with Saints Francis and Nicasius (or Liberale), known as the Castelfranco Altarpiece
c. 1505
Oil on panel
H. 200 cm; W. 152 cm
Castelfranco Veneto, Duomo di Santa Maria Assunta e San Liberale

© 1990. Photo SCALA, Florence - courtesy of the Ministerio Beni e Att. Culturali
Titian (Pieve di Cadore, 1488/1490 - Venice, 1576)<br/><i>Virgin and Child between Saint Anthony of Padua and Saint Roch</i><br/>c. 1510<br/>Oil on canvas<br/>H. 92 cm; W. 133 cm<br/>P00288<br/>Madrid, Museo del Prado
Titian (Pieve di Cadore, 1488/1490 - Venice, 1576)
Virgin and Child between Saint Anthony of Padua and Saint Roch
c. 1510
Oil on canvas
H. 92 cm; W. 133 cm
P00288
Madrid, Museo del Prado

© 1990. Photo Scala, Florence
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The painting's composition

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The composition of the painting is constructed around a large diagonal, which passes through the painting from bottom left to top right. This creates asymmetry, dynamic unbalance, which accentuates the scene’s symbolism.
The colors that punctuate the composition merge in an almost musical harmony in the light of the setting sun. The different hues of blue serve to link the different grounds together, from the intense blue of the sky and the dark blue of the Virgin’s cloak to the blueish hue of the distant mountains and the light blue of Saint Catherine’s shawl.
The colors resonate with each other: the red of the Virgin’s dress is framed by the dark blue of her cloak, and the white of Saint Catherine’s dress and the linen draping Christ. But this strong contrast in colors is characterized by harmonious tones.
Titian is admirably skillful at capturing the marine atmosphere of the area around Venice: the sea mist permeates the colors and softens the outlines, creating an effect reminiscent of Leonardo’s sfumato.
Tiziano VECELLIO, known as Titian (Pieve di Cadore, 1488/1490 - Venice, 1576)<br/><i>The Virgin and Child with Saint Catherine and a Shepherd, known as The Madonna of the Rabbit</i><br/>c. 1525 - 1530<br/>Oil on canvas<br/>H. 71 cm; W. 87 cm<br/>INV. 743<br/>Paris, musée du Louvre
Tiziano VECELLIO, known as Titian (Pieve di Cadore, 1488/1490 - Venice, 1576)
The Virgin and Child with Saint Catherine and a Shepherd, known as The Madonna of the Rabbit
c. 1525 - 1530
Oil on canvas
H. 71 cm; W. 87 cm
INV. 743
Paris, musée du Louvre

© 2007 Musée du Louvre / Angèle Dequier
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The scientific examination of the painting

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Several scientific examinations have been made of The Madonna of the Rabbit. They provide us with additional information about the work: the state of the surface and of its conservation, alterations that were made, and the pigments used.
X-ray photography in particular reveals the changes made by the painter. To begin with, the Virgin faced the shepherd and her arm lay across her lap. Titian’s decision to have the Virgin face her son highlights the religious significance of the painting.
<i>Removing the Madonna of the Rabbit</i>,<br/>Paris, Musée du Louvre
Removing the Madonna of the Rabbit,
Paris, Musée du Louvre

© 2007 musée du Louvre / Cécile Dégremont
<i>Laboratory examination</i>
Laboratory examination

© 2007 musée du Louvre / Angèle Dequier
<i>Laboratory examination</i>
Laboratory examination

© 2007 musée du Louvre / Angèle Dequier
<i>Scientific imaging of the Madonna of the Rabbit at the C2RMF laboratory</i>
Scientific imaging of the Madonna of the Rabbit at the C2RMF laboratory

© C2RMF
<i>Photograph taken in raking light from the right</i>
Photograph taken in raking light from the right

© C2RMF
<i>False-color infrared photography</i>
False-color infrared photography

© C2RMF
<i>Photograph of fluorescence under ultraviolet light</i>
Photograph of fluorescence under ultraviolet light

© C2RMF
<i>X-radiograph</i>
X-radiograph

© C2RMF
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Context

Titian (c. 1488/1490–1576)

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Titian (Tiziano Vecellio) was born between 1488 and 1490 in Pieve di Cadore. In Venice, in the workshop of Giovanni Bellini, he studied to become a painter and met Giorgione, with whom he worked until 1510. In his religious and allegorical works, he developed a luminous, lyrical style. He also executed portraits characterized by dignity and truthfulness.
In 1516, appointed official painter of the Venetian Republic, he began to receive commissions from prominent people in northern Italy. In 1533, as official portraitist of Charles V, he continued to paint Italian commissions, notably the Venus of Urbino (1538), which was the first reclining female nude in an interior. With the Christ Crowned with Thorns, painted in 1542, the colors became more strident and the composition unbalanced. In 1545–46, he was summoned to Rome by Pope Paul III, where he met Michelangelo.

At the end of his career, his style became less polished, the brushwork more vibrant, and the colors stronger, as demonstrated by the Annunciation in the church of San Salvatore in Venice and his Pietà, left unfinished. He died in 1576 at the age of nearly 90. His works inspired many painters, including Delacroix, who said, “If one were to live to the age of 120, one would prefer Titian to everything else.”
Titian (Pieve di Cadore, 1488/1490 - Venice, 1576)<br/><i>Self-Portrait</i><br/>c. 1560<br/>Oil on canvas<br/>H. 96 cm; W. 75 cm<br/>163<br/>Berlin, Gemäldegalerie (SMPK)
Titian (Pieve di Cadore, 1488/1490 - Venice, 1576)
Self-Portrait
c. 1560
Oil on canvas
H. 96 cm; W. 75 cm
163
Berlin, Gemäldegalerie (SMPK)

Photo AMF, Tokyo/© BPK, Berlin/Gemäldegalerie, Berlin/Jörg P. Anders
Giorgione (Castelfranco Veneto, 1477/1478 - Venice, 1510) and Titian (Pieve di Cadore, 1488/1490 - Venice, 1576)<br/><i>Sleeping Venus</i><br/>c. 1507 ( ?)<br/>Oil on canvas<br/>H. 108.5 cm; W. 175 cm<br/>Gal.-Nr. 185<br/>Dresden, Gemäldegalerie
Giorgione (Castelfranco Veneto, 1477/1478 - Venice, 1510) and Titian (Pieve di Cadore, 1488/1490 - Venice, 1576)
Sleeping Venus
c. 1507 ( ?)
Oil on canvas
H. 108.5 cm; W. 175 cm
Gal.-Nr. 185
Dresden, Gemäldegalerie

© The Bridgeman Art Library
Titian (Pieve di Cadore, 1488/1490 - Venice, 1576)<br/><i>Assumption of the Virgin</i><br/>1516-1518<br/>Oil on canvas<br/>H. 69 cm; W. 36 cm<br/>CAL-F-003408-0000;CAL-F-003409-0000<br/>Venice, church of Santa Maria dei Frari
Titian (Pieve di Cadore, 1488/1490 - Venice, 1576)
Assumption of the Virgin
1516-1518
Oil on canvas
H. 69 cm; W. 36 cm
CAL-F-003408-0000;CAL-F-003409-0000
Venice, church of Santa Maria dei Frari

© 1990. Photo SCALA, Florence
Titian (Pieve di Cadore, 1488/1490 - Venice, 1576)<br/><i>Sacred and Profane Love</i><br/>c. 1514<br/>Oil on canvas<br/>H. 118 cm; W. 279 cm<br/>CAL-F-002997-0000;CAL-F-003492-0000;CAL-F-003493-0000<br/>Rome, Galleria Borghese
Titian (Pieve di Cadore, 1488/1490 - Venice, 1576)
Sacred and Profane Love
c. 1514
Oil on canvas
H. 118 cm; W. 279 cm
CAL-F-002997-0000;CAL-F-003492-0000;CAL-F-003493-0000
Rome, Galleria Borghese

© 1990. Photo SCALA, Florence - courtesy of the Ministerio Beni e Att. Culturali
Titian (Pieve di Cadore, 1488/1490 - Venice, 1576)<br/><i>Portrait of a Man, known as the Man with a Glove</i><br/>c. 1520<br/>Oil on canvas<br/>H. 100 cm; W. 89 cm<br/>INV. 757<br/>Paris, Musée du Louvre
Titian (Pieve di Cadore, 1488/1490 - Venice, 1576)
Portrait of a Man, known as the Man with a Glove
c. 1520
Oil on canvas
H. 100 cm; W. 89 cm
INV. 757
Paris, Musée du Louvre

© Photo RMN/R.G.Ojéda/digital file by DNPAC
Titian (Pieve di Cadore 1488/1490 - Venice 1576)<br/><i>The Bacchanal of the Andrians</i><br/>c. 1518-1523<br/>Oil on canvas<br/>H. 175 cm; W. 193 cm<br/>Cat. n°418<br/>Madrid, Museo del Prado
Titian (Pieve di Cadore 1488/1490 - Venice 1576)
The Bacchanal of the Andrians
c. 1518-1523
Oil on canvas
H. 175 cm; W. 193 cm
Cat. n°418
Madrid, Museo del Prado

© 1995. Photo SCALA, Florence
Titian (Pieve di Cadore, 1488/1490 - Venice, 1576)<br/><i>Equestrian Portrait of Charles V at the Battle of Mühlberg</i><br/>1548<br/>Oil on canvas<br/>H. 332 cm; W. 279 cm<br/>410<br/>Madrid, Museo del Prado
Titian (Pieve di Cadore, 1488/1490 - Venice, 1576)
Equestrian Portrait of Charles V at the Battle of Mühlberg
1548
Oil on canvas
H. 332 cm; W. 279 cm
410
Madrid, Museo del Prado

© 1990. Photo SCALA, Florence
Titian (Pieve di Cadore 1488/1490 - Venice 1576)<br/><i>Venus of Urbino</i><br/>1538<br/>Oil on canvas<br/>H. 119 cm; W. 165 cm<br/>Inv. 1890 n. 1437<br/>Florence, Galleria degli Uffizi
Titian (Pieve di Cadore 1488/1490 - Venice 1576)
Venus of Urbino
1538
Oil on canvas
H. 119 cm; W. 165 cm
Inv. 1890 n. 1437
Florence, Galleria degli Uffizi

© 1996. Photo SCALA, Florence - courtesy of the Ministerio Beni e Att. Culturali
Titian (Pieve di Cadore, 1488/1490 - Venice, 1576)<br/><i>Pope Paul III and his Nephews Alessandro and Ottavio Farnese</i><br/>1546<br/>Oil on canvas<br/>H. 200 cm; W. 127 cm<br/>Naples, Museo Nazionale di Capodimonte
Titian (Pieve di Cadore, 1488/1490 - Venice, 1576)
Pope Paul III and his Nephews Alessandro and Ottavio Farnese
1546
Oil on canvas
H. 200 cm; W. 127 cm
Naples, Museo Nazionale di Capodimonte

© 2000. Photo SCALA, Florence - courtesy of the Ministero Beni e Att. Culturali
Michelangelo (Caprese, 1475 - Rome, 1564)<br/><i>The Last Judgment</i><br/>16th century<br/>Fresco<br/>H. 1,370 cm; W. 1,200 cm<br/>CAL-F-000198-0000;CAL-F-000174-0000;CAL-F-000171-0000<br/>Rome, Musei Vaticani
Michelangelo (Caprese, 1475 - Rome, 1564)
The Last Judgment
16th century
Fresco
H. 1,370 cm; W. 1,200 cm
CAL-F-000198-0000;CAL-F-000174-0000;CAL-F-000171-0000
Rome, Musei Vaticani

© akg-images / Electa
Titian (Pieve di Cadore, 1488/1490 - Venice, 1576)<br/><i>Christ Crowned with Thorns</i><br/>1542-1543<br/>Oil on panel<br/>H. 303 cm; W. 180 cm<br/>INV. 748<br/>Paris, Musée du Louvre
Titian (Pieve di Cadore, 1488/1490 - Venice, 1576)
Christ Crowned with Thorns
1542-1543
Oil on panel
H. 303 cm; W. 180 cm
INV. 748
Paris, Musée du Louvre

© Photo RMN - © René-Gabriel Ojéda
Titian (Pieve di Cadore, 1488/1490 - Venice, 1576)<br/><i>Venus and Adonis</i><br/>1553-1554<br/>Oil on canvas<br/>H. 186 cm; W. 207 cm<br/>422<br/>Madrid, Museo del Prado
Titian (Pieve di Cadore, 1488/1490 - Venice, 1576)
Venus and Adonis
1553-1554
Oil on canvas
H. 186 cm; W. 207 cm
422
Madrid, Museo del Prado

© 1990. Photo SCALA, Florence
Titian (Pieve di Cadore, 1488/1490 - Venice, 1576)<br/><i>Diana and Acteon</i><br/>1556-1559<br/>Oil on canvas<br/>H. 184.5 cm; W. 202.20 cm<br/>NGL 058.46<br/>Edinburgh, National Galleries of Scotland
Titian (Pieve di Cadore, 1488/1490 - Venice, 1576)
Diana and Acteon
1556-1559
Oil on canvas
H. 184.5 cm; W. 202.20 cm
NGL 058.46
Edinburgh, National Galleries of Scotland

© 1990. Photo SCALA, Florence
Titian (Pieve di Cadore, 1488/1490 - Venice, 1576)<br/><i>The Annunciation</i><br/>c. 1562-1564<br/>Oil on canvas<br/>H. 403 cm; W. 235 cm<br/>Venice, church of San Salvatore
Titian (Pieve di Cadore, 1488/1490 - Venice, 1576)
The Annunciation
c. 1562-1564
Oil on canvas
H. 403 cm; W. 235 cm
Venice, church of San Salvatore

© Photo Erich Lessing, Vienne
Titian (Pieve di Cadore, 1488/1490 - Venice, 1576)<br/><i>Pietà</i><br/>1576<br/>Oil on canvas<br/>H. 352 cm; W. 349 cm<br/>Venice, Galleria dell'Accademia
Titian (Pieve di Cadore, 1488/1490 - Venice, 1576)
Pietà
1576
Oil on canvas
H. 352 cm; W. 349 cm
Venice, Galleria dell'Accademia

© 1990. Photo SCALA, Florence - courtesy of the Ministerio Beni e Att. Culturali
Titian (Pieve di Cadore 1488/1490 - Venice 1576)<br/><i>Concert Champêtre</i><br/>c. 1509<br/>Oil on canvas<br/>H. 105 cm; W. 137 cm<br/>INV. 71<br/>Paris, Musée du Louvre
Titian (Pieve di Cadore 1488/1490 - Venice 1576)
Concert Champêtre
c. 1509
Oil on canvas
H. 105 cm; W. 137 cm
INV. 71
Paris, Musée du Louvre

© Musée du Louvre / Angèle Dequier
Titian (Pieve di Cadore, 1488/1490 - Venice, 1576)<br/><i>Danae</i><br/>1545-1546<br/>Oil on canvas<br/>H. 117 cm; W. 69 cm<br/>inv. no. S 83971<br/>Naples, Museo Nazionale di Capodimonte
Titian (Pieve di Cadore, 1488/1490 - Venice, 1576)
Danae
1545-1546
Oil on canvas
H. 117 cm; W. 69 cm
inv. no. S 83971
Naples, Museo Nazionale di Capodimonte

© 2007. Photo SCALA, Florence - courtesy of the Ministero Beni e Att. Culturali
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Giovanni Bellini's pupils

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Giovanni Bellini, who was born into a distinguished family of artists, was a major figure in Venice during the second half of the 15th century. The most innovative 16th-century Venetian artists trained in his workshop. The works he painted at the end of his life, in 1516, show the influence of his pupils. This is particularly true of The Feast of the Gods, whose atmosphere is reminiscent of Giorgione.
The works of Giorgione, an artist who died prematurely, are imbued with mystery and poetry. Titian produced his first works in collaboration with Giorgione, notably the frescoes at the Fondaco dei Tedeschi, where the influence of Michelangelo was also apparent. This same Roman style can be seen in the work of another of Bellini’s pupils, Sebastiano del Piombo. Following the deaths of Giorgione in 1510 and Bellini in 1516, and Sebastiano del Piombo’s departure for Rome in 1511, Titian became the leading exponent of the Venetian style.
Giorgione (Castelfranco Veneto, 1477/1478 - Venice, 1510)<br/><i>Adoration of the Shepherds</i><br/>c. 1505-1510<br/>Oil on panel<br/>H. 90.8 cm; W. 110.5 cm<br/>1939.1.289<br/>Washington, National Gallery of Art
Giorgione (Castelfranco Veneto, 1477/1478 - Venice, 1510)
Adoration of the Shepherds
c. 1505-1510
Oil on panel
H. 90.8 cm; W. 110.5 cm
1939.1.289
Washington, National Gallery of Art

© The Bridgeman Art Library
Giovanni Bellini (Venice, c. 1432 - Venice, 1516)<br/><i>Baptism of Christ</i><br/>1501<br/>Oil on panel<br/>H. 410 cm; W. 265 cm<br/>Vicenza, church of Santa Corona
Giovanni Bellini (Venice, c. 1432 - Venice, 1516)
Baptism of Christ
1501
Oil on panel
H. 410 cm; W. 265 cm
Vicenza, church of Santa Corona

© 2007. Photo SCALA, Florence
Giovanni Bellini (Venice, c. 1432 - Venice, 1516)<br/><i>Christ on the Cross (Calvary)</i><br/>c. 1465-1470<br/>Oil on panel<br/>H. 71 cm; W. 63 cm<br/>RF1970-39<br/>Paris, Musée du Louvre
Giovanni Bellini (Venice, c. 1432 - Venice, 1516)
Christ on the Cross (Calvary)
c. 1465-1470
Oil on panel
H. 71 cm; W. 63 cm
RF1970-39
Paris, Musée du Louvre

© Photo RMN - ©Daniel Arnaudet
Giovanni Bellini (Venice, c. 1430/1435 - Venice, 1516) followed by Titian<br/><i>Feast of the Gods</i><br/>1514 then 1529<br/>Oil on canvas<br/>H. 170.2 cm; W. 188 cm<br/>1942. 9. 1<br/>Washington, National Gallery of Art
Giovanni Bellini (Venice, c. 1430/1435 - Venice, 1516) followed by Titian
Feast of the Gods
1514 then 1529
Oil on canvas
H. 170.2 cm; W. 188 cm
1942. 9. 1
Washington, National Gallery of Art

© akg-images/PPS
Giorgione (Castelfranco Veneto, 1477/1478 - Venice, 1510)<br/><i>Portrait of a Young Woman ("Laura")</i><br/>1506<br/>Oil on canvas mounted on panel?<br/>H. 41 cm; W. 34 cm<br/>Inv.-Nr. GG_31<br/>Vienna, Kunsthistorisches Museum
Giorgione (Castelfranco Veneto, 1477/1478 - Venice, 1510)
Portrait of a Young Woman ("Laura")
1506
Oil on canvas mounted on panel?
H. 41 cm; W. 34 cm
Inv.-Nr. GG_31
Vienna, Kunsthistorisches Museum

© Erich Lessing, Vienne
Giorgione (Castelfranco Veneto, 1477/1478 - Venice, 1510)<br/><i>The Tempest</i><br/>c. 1505<br/>Oil on canvas<br/>H. 83 cm; W. 73 cm<br/>Venice, Galleria dell'Accademia
Giorgione (Castelfranco Veneto, 1477/1478 - Venice, 1510)
The Tempest
c. 1505
Oil on canvas
H. 83 cm; W. 73 cm
Venice, Galleria dell'Accademia

© 1990. Photo SCALA, Florence - courtesy of the Ministerio Beni e Att. Culturali
Titian (Pieve di Cadore, 1488/1490 - Venice, 1576)<br/><i>Judith (also known as Allegory of Venice or Allegory of Justice)</i><br/>c. 1508-1509<br/>Fresco (removed)<br/>Venice, Ca' d'Oro
Titian (Pieve di Cadore, 1488/1490 - Venice, 1576)
Judith (also known as Allegory of Venice or Allegory of Justice)
c. 1508-1509
Fresco (removed)
Venice, Ca' d'Oro

© 1993, Photo Scala, Florence - courtesy of the Ministero Beni e Att. Culturali
Sebastiano del Piombo (Venice, c. 1485 - Rome, 1547)<br/><i>Altarpiece of San Giovanni Crisostomo</i><br/>c. 1510-1511<br/>Oil on canvas<br/>H. 200 cm; W. 156 cm<br/>Venice, church of San Giovanni Crisostomo
Sebastiano del Piombo (Venice, c. 1485 - Rome, 1547)
Altarpiece of San Giovanni Crisostomo
c. 1510-1511
Oil on canvas
H. 200 cm; W. 156 cm
Venice, church of San Giovanni Crisostomo

© 2001. Photo SCALA, Florence
Sebastiano del Piombo (Venice c. 1485 - Rome 1547)<br/><i>The Visitation</i><br/>c. 1519<br/>Oil on canvas transferred from panel<br/>H. 168 cm; W. 132 cm<br/>INV. 357<br/>Paris, Musée du Louvre
Sebastiano del Piombo (Venice c. 1485 - Rome 1547)
The Visitation
c. 1519
Oil on canvas transferred from panel
H. 168 cm; W. 132 cm
INV. 357
Paris, Musée du Louvre

© 2005 Musée du Louvre / Erich Lessing
Sebastiano del Piombo (Venice c. 1485 - Rome 1547)<br/><i>The Raising of Lazarus</i><br/>c. 1517-1519<br/>Oil on canvas transferred from panel<br/>H. 381 cm; W. 289.6 cm<br/>NG1<br/>London, National Gallery
Sebastiano del Piombo (Venice c. 1485 - Rome 1547)
The Raising of Lazarus
c. 1517-1519
Oil on canvas transferred from panel
H. 381 cm; W. 289.6 cm
NG1
London, National Gallery

© National Gallery Collection, London
Titian (Pieve di Cadore 1488/1490 - Venice 1576)<br/><i>Concert Champêtre</i><br/>c. 1509<br/>Oil on canvas<br/>H. 105 cm; W. 137 cm<br/>INV. 71<br/>Paris, Musée du Louvre
Titian (Pieve di Cadore 1488/1490 - Venice 1576)
Concert Champêtre
c. 1509
Oil on canvas
H. 105 cm; W. 137 cm
INV. 71
Paris, Musée du Louvre

© Musée du Louvre / Angèle Dequier
Titian (Pieve di Cadore, 1488/1490 - Venice, 1576)<br/><i>Assumption of the Virgin</i><br/>1516-1518<br/>Oil on canvas<br/>H. 69 cm; W. 36 cm<br/>CAL-F-003408-0000;CAL-F-003409-0000<br/>Venice, church of Santa Maria dei Frari
Titian (Pieve di Cadore, 1488/1490 - Venice, 1576)
Assumption of the Virgin
1516-1518
Oil on canvas
H. 69 cm; W. 36 cm
CAL-F-003408-0000;CAL-F-003409-0000
Venice, church of Santa Maria dei Frari

© 1990. Photo SCALA, Florence
Titian (Pieve di Cadore, 1488/1490 - Venice, 1576)<br/><i>Sacred and Profane Love</i><br/>c. 1514<br/>Oil on canvas<br/>H. 118 cm; W. 279 cm<br/>Rome, Galleria Borghese
Titian (Pieve di Cadore, 1488/1490 - Venice, 1576)
Sacred and Profane Love
c. 1514
Oil on canvas
H. 118 cm; W. 279 cm
Rome, Galleria Borghese

© 1990. Photo SCALA, Florence - courtesy of the Ministerio Beni e Att. Culturali
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